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Cues to Participation in Prostate Cancer Screening: A Theory for Practice

Anita S. Nivens
JoAnne Herman
Sally P. Weinrich
Martin C. Weinrich
ONF 2001, 1449-1456 DOI:

Purpose/Objectives: To develop and test the Cues to Participation in Prostate Cancer Screening Theory, which proposes that exposure to information from certain sources cues or triggers screening.

Design: Descriptive correlational.

Setting: 11 counties of a southeastern state.

Sample: Convenience sample of 1,867 men at risk for prostate cancer (72% African American; 28% Caucasian).

Methods: Recent exposure to prostate cancer information was measured. Men were offered free screening by prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal exam (DRE).

Main Research Variables: Demographic variables (race, age, education, income, and marital status), exposure (electronic media, print media, healthcare provider recommendation, and interpersonal interactions), and screening as measured by PSA and DRE.

Findings: Several major propositions of the Cues to Participation Theory were supported. General exposure to prostate cancer information significantly predicted screening participation. Hearing about prostate cancer from a healthcare provider was the best predictor of screening.

Conclusions: Men's demographic characteristics should be considered when providing information about prostate cancer. Hearing about prostate cancer from family and friends was not significantly related to screening behavior.

lmplications for Practice: The importance of recommendations for prostate cancer screening is underscored.

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